Presents the span of control formulas created by V A Graicunas. PDF | On, Fred Nickols and others published The Span of Control and the Formulas of V.A. Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of. control .. A Control Theory View of Human Behavior and Performance. Span of control is the term now used more commonly in business management, particularly Theories about the optimum span of control go back to V. A. Graicunas. In he used assumptions about mental capacity and attention span to.

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It appears natural, that no organization can afford to maintain a control structure of a dimension being required for implementing a scalar chain under the unity of command condition.

Newer Post Older Post Home. First, however, a little history. Graicunas went on from this very simple case to create a table depicting the number of relationships for up to 12 subordinates.

Meaning Features Steps Import He was first to add a managerial perspective to the problem of organizational governance. This requirement necessitates achieving and maintaining some balance of power. Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Controp Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theor Graicunas Theory of Span of Control Vytautas Andrius Graiciunas was a Lithuanian french management consultant, management theorist and engineer.

In other projects Wikiquote. What is Decision Making? Similarly, a lower-level manager should not have more than 20 subordinates.

Graicunas Theory of Span of Control – Example and Formula ~ Money Market Account

Almost two years later, that posting led to a request for those formulas. His seminal paper was first published in the March thepry of The Bulletin of the International Management Institute and was reprinted in in Papers on the Science of Administration. However, this conclusion built on the assumption, that the superior must actively monitor the work of all subordinates. Often this is accomplished through reporting relationships and the control over resources they bring with them.


They assumed that a considerable amount of decisions could be delegated to organizational members at lower organizational levels. In short, it’s a judgment call, one that is affected by factors such as the abilities and style of the superior, the scope and scale of the work assigned to the individual subordinates, and the amount and nature of interaction that work requires between and among subordinates and the superior.

Graicunas thought the theoretical evidence in favor of limiting the span of control was overwhelming. In the hierarchical business organization of some time in the past it was not uncommon to see average spans of 1-to-4 or even less. Meaning Organising or Organizing in management refers to the relationship between people, work and resources used to ac Firstly, it depends on the capabilities of the organizational members, managers and workers.

For example, as noted above, adding a fifth subordinate roughly doubles complexity, increasing the total direct plus cross relationships from 44 to The Graicunas Theory is criticised because of the following reasons: Functions of Development Banks The role or functions of development banks in India are depicted below. This page was last edited on 11 Julyat Hence, there are really two relationships between two subordinates, not one.

The neoclassical theorists have developed a different solution. Fourth is a commendable desire to shorten the chain of command.

Span of Control: The Formulas of V. A. Graicunas

Therefore, total number of relationships which Gaurav G has to control are: Third is the pressure to reduce the costs of management overhead. This solution would be equivalent to the application of Fayol’s bridge combined with the principle of employee initiative that he proposed.


Graicunas Theory of Span of Control – Example and December 23, at 4: Advantages of Selecting an Appropriate Span of Con He gives more importance to the relationships. Mackenzie and others MassiePugh et al.

By using Graicunas formula, we can find out the number of relationships rif the number of subordinates n is given. The current shift to self-directed cross-functional teams and other forms of non-hierarchical structures, have made the concept of span of control less important. On the other hand, if the span of control is too large, the supervisor may not have the capacity to supervise effectively such large numbers of immediate subordinates.

So, as the number of subordinates increases arithmetically, the number of relationships among them also increases almost geometrically. The fundamental question, of course, was and still is how many is too many? The rationale for defining a strict hierarchy of communication channels is found in the need for vertical integration of activities, imposed by management’s need for control and information.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: This owes primarily to an increase in the number of direct group relationships created by adding a member to an existing group. The sum of these three types of interactions theorh the number of potential relationships of a supervisor. And, although neither Graicunas or Urwick mentioned it specifically, organizations must be governed as well as managed, led and administered. That classic in the management literature was edited by Luther Gulick and Lyndall F.

Regardless of these considerations, the number of controll a superior must attend to rises exponentially after the fourth subordinate.