In anthropology, liminality is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that . Turner also worked on the idea of communitas, the feeling of camaraderie associated among a group experiencing the same liminal. Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as a loanword in cultural anthropology and the social sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing. Liminality, the Liminoid and Communitas: Why Rites of Passage Matter Still Turner: “I see [the liminal] as a kind of institutional capsule or pocket which.

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Many cultures regard it as a time especially prone to hauntings by ghosts — liminal beingsneither alive nor dead. The term is used to distinguish the modality of social relationship from an area of common living. They later had four more children one of whom, daughter Lucy, died in infancy in The Terminalis a US film in which the main character Viktor Navorski is trapped in a liminal space; since he can neither legally return to his home country Krakozhia nor enter the United States, he must remain in the airport terminal indefinitely until he finds a way out at the end of the film.

It takes community to the next level and allows the whole of the community to share a common experience, usually through a rite of passage. In the context of rites, liminality is being artificially produced, as opposed to those situations such as natural disasters in which it can occur spontaneously. Liminal existence can be located in a separated sacred spacewhich occupies a sacred time. What takes place in the dark phase of liminality is a process of breaking down By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Journal of Marketing Management. Turner was rather pragmatic in his approach to anthropology. Although we take theories into the field with us, these become relevant only if and when they illuminate social reality.

To a traveller staying there, the hotel would function as a liminal zone, just as ‘doors and windows and hallways and gates frame Customs such as fortune-telling take advantage of this liminal state.

Lleu could not be killed during the day or night, nor indoors or outdoors, nor riding or walking, nor clothed or naked and is attacked at dusk, while wrapped in a net with one foot on a cauldron and one on a goat. Turner spent his career exploring rituals.



The idea of a ‘container’ or ‘vessel’ as a key player in the ritual process of psychotherapy has been noted by many and Carl Jung’s objective was llminality provide a space he called “a temenos, a magic circle, a vessel, in which the transformation inherent in the patient’s condition would be allowed to take place.

He invoked the work of Sigmund Freudparticularly his Interpretation of Dreams, in recognizing that these symbols can stand for more than one referent and have several levels of meaning. Beyond this structural template, Van Gennep also suggested four categories of rites that emerge as universal across cultures and societies.

They are optional activities of leisure that place both the spectator and the competitor in in-between places outside of society’s norms.

Communitas – Wikipedia

In his theory of social dramas, Turner argued that there were four main phases of public action that lead to change:. Sudden events affecting one’s life death, divorce, illness or individualized ritual passage baptism, ritual passage to adulthood, as for example among the Ndembu.

The congregation is transformed in the liminal space and as they exit, are sent out back into the world to serve. Every social position has something sacred about it. The communitas is according to Turner the ultimate vision of a culture. A Study of Ndembu Village Life published in The Inoperative CommunityMinneapolis: Anonymous November 1, at 6: Examples in the Bible include the dream of Jacob Genesis Victor Witter Turner was born in Glasgow, Scotlandinto a middle-class family.

Reactivating the Missional Church. Van Gennep considered rites of initiation to be the most typical rite. The result is a unique perspective on what has come before, and what may come next. By suggesting that such a sequence is universal meaning that all societies use rites to demarcate transitionsvan Gennep made an important claim one that not many anthropologists make, as they generally tend to demonstrate cultural diversity while shying away from universality.

He notes that this liminal zone is both spatial and temporal and integral when planning a successful event e. The concept of a liminal situation can also be applied to entire societies that are going through a crisis or a “collapse of order”.

Worship can be understood in this context as the church community or communitas or koinonia enter into liminal space corporately.


In his Schism and Continuity in African Societyhe explains the concept of social dramas, arguing that dramas exist as a result of the conflict that is inherent liminaloty societies. The name is from an actual zone observable from space in the place where daylight or shadow advances or retreats about the Earth. They allow for the emergence of “self-proclaimed ceremony masters”, that assume leadership positions and attempt to “[perpetuate] liminality and by emptying the liminal moment of real creativity, [turn] it into a scene of mimetic rivalry”.

For a hotel worker an insider or a person passing by with communitws a total outsiderthe hotel would have a very different connotation.

According to Turner, there is in ritual an essential element of religious belief. There are a number of stories in folklore of those who could only be killed in a limjnality space: The operational meaning is objective, observed by the researcher, and deals with the purpose of ritual in a society. Social and cultural anthropology. However, liminality and communitas are usually temporary and structurally defined and limited, thus dialectically serve to reaffirm the existing social order.

Within the works turenr Turner, liminality began to wander away from its narrow application to ritual passages in small-scale societies. Abd states that the story “Caravan Park” in Berridge’s short story collection is an example of a story with a “liminal” setting, as it is set in a mobile home park; since mobile homes can be relocated, she states that setting a story in a mobile home ” The “manifest” meaning is apparent to the observer and related to the goal of the ritual; the “latent” meaning is one that the observer has partial awareness of and may fully understand only later; while the “hidden” meaning belongs to the subconscious or unconscious level of the members of the culture and is generally not known by the outside observer.

Valuing ritual and its symbolism, together with the experience of communitas for those making the transition from one phase to another, are Turner’s contribution to our understanding of how we can better human society.